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孤独症儿童康复科普知识

  发表日期: 2018年3月29日     来源:一分时时彩_一分时时彩官方网站_官方入口 admin  查看: 1347

diyibufen lejieguduzheng

  1、shenmeshiguduzheng?

  guduzhengshiyizhongnaofayuxingzhangai,yishehuijiaowangzhangai、goutongyifenshishicaizhangaihezhongfujuxiandexingquxingweiweizhuyaotezheng。guduzhengqibingyusansuizhiqian,sansuiyihoubiaoxianmingxian,juedaduoshuertongxuyaozhangqidekangfuxunlianheteshujiaoyuzhichi。

  2、guduzhenghezibizhengshiyihuishima?

  shide。guduzhengdezhuanyemingchengweiguduzhengpuxizhangai(asd),guduzhenghezibizhengshiyingwenautismdeliangzhongyiming,“guduzheng”zhuyaobeizhongguoneidideyixueyijiteshujiaoyujiesuoshiyong;“zibizheng”zezhuyaobeizhongguoxianggang、aomen、taiwandiquheriben、xinjiapo、malaixiyadengyoushiyonghanyudeguojiasuoshiyong。

  3、guduzhengshiyizhongxinlijibingma?

  guduzhengbushiyizhongxinlijibing,dandabufenguduzhengertonghuiyouxinliwenti,rurenzhi、qingxuhexingweiwenti;guduzhengyebushixinggegupi。

  4、guduzhengshuyunaleicanji?

  2006nianqi,woguojiangguduzhengguileiweijingshencanji。

  5、guojiheguoneishoucizhenduanguduzhengshishenmeshihou?

  1943nian,meiguoyuehan?huopujinsidaxuezhumingertongjingshenkeyisheng leo kanner fabiaolediyipianguanyuguduzhengdelunwen,limianliejule 11 gehaizidebingli,bingshoucitichuleguduzhengdegainian。1982nian,nanjingnaokeyiyuanertongjingshenbingxuejiataoguotaijiaoshoushoucibaogaole4liguduzhenghuaner,cihouyinqiguoneiguanzhu。

  6、guduzhengdehuanbinglvshiduoshao?

  muqian,shijieweishengzuzhi(who)baogaodequanqiupingjunhuanbinglvwei62/10000(0.62%),xiangdangyumei160geertongzhongyouyiweiguduzhengertong。conggeguobaogaodeqingkuanglaikan,guduzhengdeshijihuanbinglvkenenghaiyaogaoyuzheigeshuju。

  7、guduzhengdefabingyouxingbiechayima?

  guduzhengdefabingyoumingxiandexingbiechayi,nanhaihuanbinglvxianzhugaoyunvhai,yibannan/nvhuanbinglvzhibiwei4-6/1。

  8、weishenmehuichanshengguduzheng?

  guduzhengzhijinbingyinweiming。liuxingbingxueyanjiuyijingshaichachuhenduokenengdaozhiguduzhengdeweixianyinsu,danshimeiyouyizhongshidaozhiguduzhengfashengdezhijieyinsu。bijiaogongrendeyuanyinshijiyinbianyiyubulianghuanjingdejiaohuzuoyong,tebieshixinshengtubian(de novo mutation)kenengshiguduzhengfabingdezhuyin,danjutizhibingyinsuhejizhibuming。yanjiuxianshi,yixieyinsurugaolingfumu、yunqiganran、yunzaoqibuliangyongyaohuojiechuhuaxuewuzhidengyoukenengzengjiahuanguduzhengdefengxian。

  9、guduzhengshiyouyufumubuchengzhizaochengdema?

  bushi。jishinianqian,zairenmenduiguduzhenghaibulejiedeshiqi,youxierenrenwei,darenfuyanghaizidefangfabudanghuidaozhihaizihuanyouguduzheng,youqishihaizidemuqin。youyizhongshuofajiaozuo“bingxiangmamalilun”,yisishimuqinlengdandeyangyufangfahuishihaizihuanyouguduzheng。zheizhongshuofayijingbeikexueheshishituifan,yanjiuzhengshiguduzhengshiyizhongnaofayuxingzhangai,yufumujiaoyangfangshiwuguan。

  10、zhiyouertongcaihuideguduzhengma?

  bushi。yanjiufaxian,guduzhengshizaiertongchushengqianchanshengde,zaichushenghoujigeyuezhi3suiqianzhubuchuxianguduzhengzhengzhuang,youdeqichubiaoxianyuputongertongwuyi,dangongnengzhujiandaotuichanshengguduzhengzhengzhuang。xuyaozhuyideshi,guduzhengdehexinzhengzhuangkenenghuichixuzhongsheng。suirankexueyujishidekangfukeyibangzhuguduzhengertongbuduanjinbu、zouxiangduli,danbingbubiaoshiguduzhenghuizhiyuertongshiqi。

  11、weishenmebunengzaihaizichushengshizhenduanchuhuanyouguduzheng?

  zhuyaoyouyixiayuanyin:

  (1)zaiertong1suiyiqian,keyizhanxiandexingweifanweiyouxian,duiqixingweileixinghefayuzhuangkuangjinxingjuedingxingdezhenduanyijubuzu,yemeiyouyouxiaodeyiqicecha。

  (2)guduzhengertongzhong,youhendayibufenzhiliyeyouwenti,xuduojiazhangyinweiduizhilizhangaidedanxinerjiangguduzhenghulvele。

  (3)guduzhengdezhuyaowentizhiyishiyuyanfazhandewenti,eryuyanfazhanwentibudao3suishibunengwanquanpanmingde。

  (4)yibufenguduzhengertongkaishishidefayuchengxianyuzhengchanghaizixiangtongdezhuangkuang,zhidao2—3suishiguduzhengzhengzhuangcaixianxianchulai。

  (5)yibufenfumuduihaizideshenxinfazhanquefazhishi,yikaishishihushi,houlaishibuxiangxin,xiangguanwangyiduanshijian,jieguoshizhenduanshijituichi。

  (6)muqianxuduoyiyuanyishengduiguduzhengzhenduanzhishiqianque,quefazugoudelinchuangjingyan,tebieshiduiqingweidexiaonianlingdeguduzhengzhengzhuangquerenkunnan,yinerbaguduzhengkanchengshizanshixingjihuandeqingkuanghenduo。

  12、ruguodiyitaishiguduzheng,diertaiyoumeiyoukenenghaishiguduzheng?

  ruguomeiyoumingquedejiyinjiancha,shengdiertaiqueshihuiyouyidingdefengxian。danmeigejiatingdeqingkuangbunengyigaierlun。yibanlaishuo,90%yishangyouguduzhenghaizidejiating,yenengshengxiazhengchangjiankangdehaizi;ruguodiertaishengnvhai,huanbingdeweixianxinggengdi;congshijiegeguodeanlilaikan,lianxuliangtaishengguduzhenghaizidelizihenshao。

  13、guduzhengzhengzhuangyibanchuxianzaishenmeshiqi?

  genjuweishengjishengweiyu2010nian7yue23ribanbude《ertongguduzhengzhenliaokangfuzhinan》,ertongguduzhengqibingyu3suiqian,qizhong2/3dehuanerchushenghouzhujianchuxianguduzhengdezhengzhuang,yue1/3dehuanerjinglile1-2nianzhengchangfayuhouchuxianledaotui,bingkaishichuxianguduzhengzhengzhuang。

  14、guduzhenghuiwuzhenma?

  yinweiguduzhengdezhenduanshijiyuxingweizhengzhuangxuezhibiao,suoyiwuzhennanyibimian。ruguoyishengjuyoufengfudejingyanhezhuanyezhishi,wuzhenyibanbuhuichuxian。zuikenengchuxiandewuzhenhuichuxianzaimouxieqingkuangfeichangqingdehaizishenshang,tamendezhengzhuangyoukenengbeiyishenghulvele。lingwai,duiyunianjijiaoxiaodehaizilaishuo,ruguojingguoxitongdexunliantamendeqingkuanghuiyoumingxiandegaishan,yejiushiweishenmesuizhenianlingdezengzhang,shenbianderenhuozhejiazhanghuijuedehaizibeiwuzhenle,qishishiyouyuhaizidezhenggezhuangtaihuifudejiaoweilixiang。

  15、guduzhengzhuyaoyounaxiebiaoxian?

  (1)shejiaofazhanfangmian

  ◆quefayutarendeyifenshishicaihuoyifenshishicaijiqiao,yufumuqinzhijianquefaanquanyilianguanxi;

  ◆yurenjiechushiquefamuguangjiechu,henshaohuobunengzhudongjiaowang。

  (2)goutongfangmian

  ◆yuyanyifenshishicaizhangai,yuyanfayuluohou,huozaizhengchangyuyanfayuhouchuxianyuyandaotui,huoyuyanquefayifenshishicaixingzhi;

  ◆yingwuxuesheyuyan。buduanzhongfutarenshuoguodehuahuotingdaodeguanggaocideng。

  (3)xingweifangmian

  ◆zairichangshenghuozhongjujuegaibianxiguanhechanggui;

  ◆xingquxiaai,huifeichangzhuanzhuyumouxiewupin,huozheshiduitedingwupintebieganxingqu;

  ◆keban、zhongfuhuoyishixingxingwei;

  ◆qitachangjianxingweibaokuoduodong、zhuyilifensan、ziwocijixingweideng。

  16、meigeguduzhengertongdebiaoxiandouyiyangdema?

  guduzhengertongdebiaoxianmeigerendoubutong。zhilifangmian,congzhishangbuzu40daogaoyu120detiancaizhishang;yuyanfangmian,conghaowuyuyandaojixiefangshuo、xiongbianshenzhiguibian;shejiaoxingqufangmian,congduirenhaowuxingqudaoduirenganxingqudaofansirenjia;xingquxingweifangmian,congpingzigaidaotianwen,congzhuantouwakuaidaoditu、jiaotongluxian,congguanggaodaolishichuanji,congbushishudaochangrenbunengqijidetuisuanwannianli、kaipingfangyijishuziyansuan,congbushizidaoguomubuwangdeshijitiancai;chuleguduzhenghaiziteyoudeyifenshishicaiheshejiaodeteyixingbiaoxianwai,meigehaizidebiaoxiandoubuxiangtong。

  17、guduzhengertongbuhuishuohuama?

  guduzhengertong“hui”shuohua,danpubianquefayuyangoutongnengli。xianyoushujubiaoming,dayue25%deguduzhengertongmeiyoukouyuyuyanhuojinyouyouxiandekouyuyuyanbiaodanengli。jingguokangfuxunlianhou,suizheshehuijiaowanggongnengdetigao,guduzhengertongdeyuyannengliyekeyizhujianfazhan。

  18、guduzhengertongzhiliyouwentima?

  genjumeiguojibingkongzhiheyufangzhongxin2009niandediaocha,dayue46%deguduzhengertongyongyoupingjunzhihuozhepingjunzhiyishangdezhishang。suiranmuqianshangwulingminkekaodeceshiguduzhengertongzhishangdegongju,yishangtigongdezhishangzhishuyejindaibiaoyigeguce,buguozheigejieguokeyishuomingbufenguduzhengertongyongyouyuputongrenqunyiyanghuogenggaodezhishang。yeyouyanjiubaodao60%deguduzhengertongbanyoubutongchengdudezhilifayuluohou。

  19、guduzhenghuanzhehuiyougongjixingweima?

  guduzhenghuanzheyibanbuhuiyouyigongjibieren,zhishiyouyuqigoutonghebiaodazhangai,youshihuiyongyiyuchangrendefangshiyuren“goutong”,huorenmenbulijieqixuqiuheyiyuandeshihou,huichuxianxingweiheqingxuwenti。guduzhenghuanzhequanwu“hairen”zhixin,buhuisuanjiren,quefafankangxingwei,beirenweishizuizhenshideren。

  20、guduzhengertongdoutebiecongmingma?

  guduzhengertonggetichayihenda,dabufenmeiyouteshunenglibiaoxian,zhiyouxiaobufenbiaoxianchu“gudaozhihui”,zaihuihua、leqi、yinle、secai、jisuan、jixiejiyi、fangweibianbiedengfangmianyoutebietuchudebiaoxian,ruguojiayiheliyindaoyupeiyangzhuanhua,zheixienengliduiqizhiyekaifahuiyoujijiyiyi。

  21、guduzhengertongganjuefangmianyouwentima?

  yanjiuxianshi,56-90%deguduzhengertongcunzaiganjuetongheshidiao,suoyidabufenhuiyouganjuefangmiandewenti。ru,tingzhijuemingan: xiaimouxieshengyin,duilingyixieshengyintebiekongju;chujueyichang: buxihuanyongbaohuochumo;tongjueyichang: duobupatong;shijueyichang: duitebietuxiangdexihaohuoyane、xihuanxieshi、daoshi;bentijueyichang: xihuanzuoche、pazuodianti、xixuanzhuan。

  22、guduzhengertongyundongfangmianyouwentima?

  bufenguduzhengertongzaiyundonggongnengfangmianyecunzaizheguominhuodimindebiaoxian,birubuxihuancucaodedimian,rongyiyunche、yunchuan,buxihuanbeitui,xingdongshizongyaozhuazhumouxiedongxilaibaochipingheng。haiyouxiexihuanqianhoubaidongshenti,xihuanzhuanquan,buxihuanjingzuo、xihuanbaochihuodongzhuangtaideng。

  23、guduzhenghuihebingqitajibingma?

  chaoguo70%deguduzhenghuanzhehuiyoubutongleibiehechengdudeqitabingzheng(gongbing)。changjiandeshijingshenzhangai、ganzhijueyichang、weichangdaowenti、zhuyilizhangai、zhilizhangai、dianxian、mianyishiheng、jiaolvyiyudeng。zheixiebingzhengduiguduzhenghuanzhedeshenghuozhiliang、kangfuxiaoguoyijiyuhoudengdouhuizaochengbuliangyingxiang。

  24、guduzhengyouyaokezhima?

  youyuguduzhengdebingyinhefabingjizhirengbuqingchu,suoyimuqianshangquefazhenduiguduzhenghexinzhengzhuangdeyaowu,zhuyaoyikaokangfuxunlianheteshujiaoyushouduan,yaowuzhiliaoweifuzhuxingdeduizhengzhiliaocuoshi,rukangjingshenbinglei、kangyiyuleihezhiliaoduodongleideyaowuduizhiliaoxiangguanzhengzhuanghuiyoubangzhu。

  25、zaigonggongchangheyingdangzenyangbangzhuguduzhengertong?

  zuoweimoshengren,kandaoguduzhengertongshi,genjuqingkuangkeyizuochubutongdefanying。ruguotamenzhudonghenidazhaohu,yifenshishicaikeyidiantouweixiaozuochuhuiying。ruguotamenchuxianleyixiebuqiadangdexingwei,yifenshishicaikeyihushi,buyaojijiazhangluanchuzhuyi,youshihouhushiyeshiyizhongbaoronghejieshou。

  26、“shijieguduzhengri”shizenmehuishi?

  shijieguduzhengriquanchengwei“shijieguduzhengguanzhuri”(world autism awareness day),2007nian12yuelianheguodahuitongguojueyi,cong2008nianqi,jiangmeiniande4yue2ridingwei“shijieguduzhengguanzhuri”,zhizaitigaorenmenduiguduzhengxiangguanyanjiuyuzhenduanyijiguduzhenghuanzhedeguanzhu。meinian4yue2ri,lianheguohuifabuguduzhengrixuanchuanzhuti,lianheguomishuzhanghuifabiaojianghua,shijiegediyehuijinxinggezhongxuanchuanchangdaohuodong。

                                    dierbufen jiazhangbidu

  1、jiazhangzenmenengjizaofaxianhaiziyouguduzhengqingxiang?

  zongheguoneiwaizhuanjiaduijiazhangdejianyi,zongjieleqigezhongyaodezaoqizhengzhao,tamenfenbieshi:

  (1)haizidaoleliugeyuedadeshihou: meiyoucanlandexiaoronghuozheshigaoxingdebiaoqing;

  (2)daolejiugeyuedadeshihou: meiyouhezhouweirenhudongdeshengyin、xiaoronghuozheshimianbubiaoqing;

  (3)daoleshiergeyuedadeshihou: duiyubierenjiaozijidemingziquefafanying;

  (4)daoleshiergeyuedadeshihou: meiyouyingeryu;

  (5)daoleshiergeyuedadeshihou: meiyouhezhouweirenzishishangdehudong,biru: zhidongxi、rangbierenkanyigedongxi、shenshouqunadongxihuozheshizhaoshou;

  (6)daoleshiliugeyuedadeshihou: meiyouyuyan;

  (7)daoleershisigeyuedadeshihou: meiyouyouyiyideliangziduanyu(mofangbierenhuozheshizhongfubierenshuohuadebusuan);

  zuoweijiazhang,xuyaozhidaodeshizheixiezhishigaosunihaiziyoukenenghuanyouguduzheng,ruguohaizifuhelezheixiezaoqizhengzhaodehua,yifenshishicaiyinggaijinzaodaihaiziquzhaozhuanyedeyishengjihaizizuoyigepinggu,ranhoujizaokaishixiangguandekangfuxunlian。danshiyeyaozhuyi,bushishuoyouzheigezhengzhao,haizijiushiguduzhengle,zheizhishiyigecankao。

  2、shenmedifangkeyizhenduanguduzheng?

  yibanlaishuo,gediertongyiyuan、fuyoubaojianyuan、jingshenbingyuanzhongdeerkejizongheyiyuandeerkekeyizhenduanguduzheng。

  gongrendequanweizhenduanjigoubaokuo: beijingdaxuediliuyiyuan、zhongshandaxuedisanyiyuandeng。

  3、muqianyounaxiefangfayibeizhengshiduiguduzhengertongkangfujiaoyuyouxiao?

  genjumeiguoguojiaguduzhengzhongxin2009niangongbudeyanjiubaogao,muqianyoushiyizhongzhiliaofangfashikexueshiyanzhengmingduiguduzhenghaiziyouxiaode,baokuo: qianyinbao(antecedent package)、xingweibao(behavioral package)、youerzonghexingweizhiliao(comprehensive behavior treatment for young children)、lianhezhuyiganyu( joint attention intervention)、shifan(modeling)、ziranjiaoxue(naturalistic teaching strategies)、tongbanxunlian (peer training package)、guanjianfanyingxunlian(pivotal response treatment)、xingshili (schedules)、ziwoxingweiguanli(self-management)heyigushiweijichudeganyumoshi(story-based intervention package)。jiandandishuo,zheixiedoushizaiyingyongxingweifenxi(applied behavior analysis, jianchengaba)jichushangsuochanshengdekangfujiaoyufangfa。

  yixieguoneijiazhangbijiaoshuzhidefangfa,baokuo: tupianyifenshishicaifangfa(jianchengpecs)、guduzhengertonghegoutongruonengertongdezhiliaohejiaoyu(jianchengteacch)、dibanshiguang(jianchengdir)heganjuetonghezhiliaodengdoubuzaizheishiyizhongfangfalimian,suoyi,yifenshishicaijianyijiazhangzaixuanzefangfadeshihou,yaofenqingzhuci。

  4、weishenmekaishikangfuxunlianqianyaoduiguduzhengertongjinxingpinggu?

  yinweimeiyigeguduzhengertongdeqingkuangbutong,jinxingpinggukeyirangkangfuxunlianjihuadezhidinggengyouzhenduixing。muqianguoneijingchangyongdaodepinggufangfayouguduzhengertongxinlijiaoyupinggu(jianchengpep-3,guoneiyingyongdebanbenjianchengcpep)、jibenyuyanhexuexijinengpinggu(jianchengablls-r)、yuyanxingweipinggukecheng(jianchengvb-mapp)。zheixiepingguyibandoukeyiyoujiazhanggenjuhaizideshijiqingkuangjinxingtianxie,ranhouyouzhuanyedexingweifenxishiyuhaizijinxinghudonghou,dechuyigexiangduikeguandepinggujieguo。

  5、jiazhangzenyangheguduzhengertonggoutong?

  jiazhangshihaizizhongyaodegoutongduixiang,yeshihaizitongxiangshehuidezhongyaojiezhi,bunengjinxinggoutongshiyijianhenkunraoherongyiranghaizifapiqideshiqing,congerdaozhiyixiebuqiadangxingweidefasheng。jiazhangyifangmianyaoxuehuiyuhaizigoutong,lingyifangmianyaojiaohaizixuehuigoutong,ruguojiazhangkeyijiaohaiziyixiefeichangjibendegoutongfangfajiunenggouyouxiaojianshaozheileixingweidefasheng。juticelveyou: (1)xuehuiguanchahaizidexingwei,lejieqixuqiuhegongneng;(2)lejiehaizizuiganxingqudeshiwu,bingzhengqueyunyong;(3)xuexixingweiganyucelve,buqiangpohaizigoutong;(4)xueximouxiezhuanyedegoutongjineng,ru: tupianyifenshishicaixitong(pictures exchange communication system, jianchengpecs)jiushiyigefeichanghaodegoutonggongju。

  6、jiazhangruhebangzhuguduzhengertongchuliwentixingwei?

  guduzhengertongyouyugoutongnenglidequefa,huitongguoyixiebuqiadangdexingweilaiyinqibierendezhuyi、dedaozijixiangyaodedongxi、taobizijibuxiangzuodeshiqing。zuoweijiazhang,shouxianyaozhidaozhenduibutongdewentixingweigairuhequyingdui,yibimianwentixingweibianchenglehaizideyizhongbushidangdegoutongfangshi。youyidianfeichangzhongyao,jiushizaiwentixingweiyikaishideshihoujiuyaojinxingganyu,buyaodengwentixingweiyijingbianchenglezhangqicunzaidewentihuozhejuyouyanzhongshanghaixingdexingweihouzaixiangbanfaqujiejue。

  7、daiguduzhengertongcanjiajuhuijiazhangyingzhuyishenme?

  (1)tiqiangaosupengyoumennidehaizihuiyounaxiebiaoxian,erzheixiebiaoxianyoudaibiaoleshenme。biru: nidehaiziduiyumoshengrengentadazhaohuhuiwuzhuerduo,bikaishixian,zheishitadeziwobaohuhebuyuanyiyurengoutongdebiaodafangshi,ruguoduifangjixuzaihehaizidazhaohu,neimejiuyoukenengyinfawentixingwei。nikeyigaosunidepengyou,gennidehaizidiangetoushikeyibeijieshoudewenhaofangshi,zheiyangjiunenggoubimianjuhuishidegangale。

  (2)yaorangpengyouzhidaonidehaizibushidaodangui,zhibuguotadexingweixuyaomanmanguifan,ershenweijiazhangdeniyijingzaikaishizhubuganyule。

  (3)youxiehaizixihuanzaibierendejialidaochuliuda,jiazhangyaotiqianwenqingchunaxiefangjianshibuxujinrude,huozhezhijiebaituopengyoubabukeyibeijinrudefangjiansuohao。

  (4)ruguonidehaiziduiyouxieshiwuguomin,nikeyitiqiangaosuduifang,huozhezhudongyaoqiudaishiwuyudajiafenxiang。

  8、guduzhengertongjianglainengzishiqilima?

  ruguojianchikexueganyuhechixuzhichi,xiangdangyibufenguduzhengertongjianglainengjubeidulishenghuonengli,nengzaizhichihuanjingxiajiuye,shixianzishiqili。duiyuqinenglidedaohenhaokaifahexunliandehaizi,zaimouxiefangmianhainengqudehendachengjiu,shixiangengdaderenshengjiazhi。

  9、guduzhengertongkeyizhengchangshangxuema?

  guduzhengertongjuyoufalvbaohudejiuxuequanli。youyukeguancunzaideshehuiyifenshishicaihegoutongzhangai,guduzhengertongxuyaokexuedekangfuxunlian,xuyaoronghehuanjingdezhichi,kangfuxunlianxiaoguoyuehao,jieshoujiaoyudezhangaijiuyuexiao。

  10、haizihuanyouguduzheng,jiazhangyinggaizenyangshenghuo?

  (1)qianwanbuyaobazijihehaizifengbiqilai,yaoranggengduoderenquzhidaohelejieguduzheng。bahaizihezijiguanzaijiali,buhewaijiegoutong,henduoshihoushiyinweiyifenshishicaijuedeganga,buzhidaozenmequmianduihaizidetufaqingkuang,huozheshihaiziyijingbayifenshishicainongdejingpilijinle。yaoxuehuiquyingfuzheixierangzijishushouwucedeshiqing,tingqixiongtang,daizhejiarenhehaizizourushehui。

  (2)buyaotaiguozaiyishenbianrendeyanshenhuozheshixiangfa,yifenshishicaishizaibuxuyaoneixiefumiandedongxi。ruguonijuedebierendeyanshenhuozhexingweirangnijuedezibei,buganqumiandui,neimejiuyaoxiangxiangshishenmeyuanyindaozhide。shiyinweihaizidebushidangxingweihejudongrangnijuedexiukui,haishizijidexintaiwenti?ruguoshiqianzhe,neimeyifenshishicaijiuxiangbanfaqugaibianzheixiexingwei,jiaohaiziyinggaizaigongzhongchangheruhequyingdui。ruguoshihouzhe,yifenshishicaiyaoganjinduanzhengzijidexintai,zuoweifumuyifenshishicaishouxianyaojieshouzijihaizidebutong,caihuidaidongnishenbianderenzhubujieshou。

  (3)xuehuiruhekongzhizhuhaizizaogaodepiqi。zheidianburongyizuodao,danshiweilenidejiating,weilehaizi,weilenimendounenggouguozhengchangdeshenghuo,zuoweijiazhangbixuyaoxuehuizheidian。yaofenxihejihaizidexingweizhaodaoqiadangdebiaodatujing,yaodongdezaigongzhongchangheruheshihaizicongfapiqikuaisubiandeanjing。youshihou,yixieyinle、dianzichanpin、shiwuhefuzhugoutonggongjudoukeyidadaozheigegongxiao。

  (4)baochizijidexinjingkailang,dongdeyoumo,bingqiejianchiduanlianshenti。yaodongdeguanchazijishibushiguodulaolei,qingxushangshibushikuaiyaotouzhi,shidangdijizijiyixiechuanxidejihui,zhiyoudangjiazhangdexintaiheshentiqingkuanglianghaodeshihou,cainenggoujihaiziyigeqingsongyukuaidechengzhanghuanjing。

                                    disanbufen kangfujiaoyu

  1、shenmeshiguduzhengdezuijiaganyuqi?

  yibanlaishuo,8suiqianshiguduzhengdezuijiaganyuqi。qizhong,3suiqianshiguduzhengertongyuyanxuexidehuangjinqi。nianlingyuexiao,danaofayudekesuxingyueda,suoyizaofaxian、zaoganyushiguduzhengertongkangfujiaoyuzuizhongyaodejibencelve。

  2、guduzhengertongkangfujiaoyubaokuojigebufen?

  guduzhengertongkangfujiaoyubaokuojichuxuexijineng、xuexinengli、zilinengli、yundongjinengsigebufen。jichuxuexijinengzhideshihaiziduiyushijuefangmiandeguanchaheshouyanxiediaonengli;yuyandelijie、biaodahegoutongnengli;youxijiqiao、shejiaojiqiao、xiaozuhuodongdepeihechengduyijishenghuochangguidezhixingnengli。xuexinenglizhideshihaizirenzi、xieziheshuxuezheisanfangmiandenengli,yibanzhenduishijifayunianlingzaisisuihuoyishangdehaizi。zilinenglishifeichangzhongyaode,conghaiziyikaishijieshouxunlianjiuyaoguanchuanzaizhenggexunlianjihuali,zilinenglibaohanlechuanyi、jinshi、shuxiherucedenenglipeiyang。yundongjinengfangmian,yifenshishicaiyaozaikangfuxunlianzhongquebaohaizidecudayundong(pao、tiao、rengqiudeng)hejingxiyundong(chuanzhu、dajimu、koukouzideng)doudedaochongfendelianxi。

  3、shenmeshiyingyongxingweifenxi?

  yingyongxingweifenxi(applied behavior analysis,aba)shiyimenguanyuxingweiguilvdeshehuikexue,qizhuzhizaiyufenxibinggaishanjuyoushehuiyiyide、keguanchade、keceliangde、youkeguanguilvderenleixingwei。yingyongxingweifenxidetedianbaokuo: yingyongxing、xingweixing、fenxixing、jishuxing、gainianxitonghua、youxiaoxingheyibanxing。yingyongxingweifenxisuohangaidefanweihenguang,taqizhongdeyixieyuanzebeiyingyongdaoguduzhengkangfujiaoyuzhizhong,bingqieyoushiyanshujuzhichi,danyingyongxingweifenxibingbushiyinweiguduzhengerchanshengde。yingyongxingweifenxidehexinshilejieyugaijinxingwei,queqiedeshuoshiyimenjiangxingweiyuanzexitongdiyunyongzaiyouxiaotigaoyoushehuiyiyidexingweizhong,bingqietongguoshiyanfangfalaizhengmingqiyouxiaoxingheguanlianxingdekexue。yingyongxingweifenxishejidaodeyixiexingweiyuanze,liru: qianghua、chengfa、xiaotui、suzaodengdoushishouxiantongguoshiyanxingweifenxizhengmingzhihou,yunyongzaitigaorenleixingweiyijishenghuozhiliangfangmiande。

  4、shenmeshigebiehuaxunlianjihua?

  gebiehuaxunlianjihuajiushizhenduiguduzhengertongdequeqiexuyaozhidingdekangfujiaoyujihua。yibanzaiguowaiyifenjihuaweiqiyinian,guoneidabufenjigoudouyisangeyueweiyiqi。xunlianjihuadeneirongzaibutongjieduanxuyaobaokuobutongdeneirong,yidingyaoyincaishijiao,liangticaiyi,zheiyangcainenggouzuidahuadiranghaizihuoyi。

  5、kangfujiaoyuweishenmeyaofenjieduan?

  kangfujiaoyuneironghenduo,bukenengtongshijinxing,yaogenjuguduzhengertongdejieshounenglifenjieduanshishi,zuoxunlianjihuashiyeyaoxunxujianjin。tongshi,genjuguduzhengertongzhangwodechengduduijihuadejutineirongjinxingdiaozheng。

  6、kangfujiaoyuchujijieduanyounaxieneirong?

  zheigejieduanzhuyaoshijianlijibenxuexixingwei,rutingcongzhilinghejibenpeihenengli。duiyugangbeizhenduanhuonianlingzai2suizuoyoudehaizi,shouxian,yaojiaohuitadeshiruhepeiheyifenshishicai,yuyifenshishicaijianliguanxi。suoyizheigejieduanyibanyifenshishicaihuijiaohaiziyixiejiandandezhilinggencong,birushuo: zuohaole、zhanqilai、guolai、baobao、zhaozhaoshoudengdongzuo;tongshi,haikeyijiaohaiziwanjiandandemuzhipintu,rangtaxuehuishoushiwanju。chujijieduanyibanhuiyongdagailiangzhoudaoyigeyuedeshijian,jihaizijianliyigeshangkedeqifen,shuxishangkedezhuangtai,bingqienenggouzaianjingdeqingxuxiapeihejiazhangwanchengyixiejiandandezhiling。

  7、kangfujiaoyuzhongjijieduanyounaxieneirong?

  zheigejieduandezhongdianshijibenxuexinenglidejianli,zhuyaoneirongbaokuo: yuyanheyanyubiaoda、dongzuomofangnengli、shijuexunlian、youxiheshejiaojinengyijifayindegenconghejiuzheng。zheigejieduanshifeichangzhongyaode,zaoqide、zhengquedezhuanyeganyukeyiweijinhoudexuexiheyuhoufazhandaxialianghaojichu。danzheixiedoushifeichangzhuanyede、xunxujianjindeguocheng,xuyaozhuanyerenyuanhejigoudechixuzhichi。

  8、kangfujiaoyugaojijieduanyounaxieneirong?

  zheigejieduandezhongdianshitigaoxuexipinzhihejineng。zaizhongjijieduandejichushang,jiazhanghelaoshikeyizhujianzengjiananduhehaizizizhuxuexijineng,jiehehaizidexingqu、nengliheshenghuohuanjing,ranghaizizaiyuyanrenzhifangmianzhangwowupingongneng、waixingheleibiedezhishi,zaiyuyanfangmiankaishiyujiazhangshiyongyifenshishicaixingyuyan,yijixuexixiaozushangkedejiqiao。

  9、kangfujiaoyuxueqianjieduanyounaxieneirong?

  xueqianjieduanshihaizijianlishenghuonengliheweixuexiyubeijinengdezhongyaojieduan,shouxianyaobangzhuhaizixuehuijibenshenghuojineng,jianshaoyilaiheganraoxingwei,weidulishenghuonenglidejianlidaxialianghaojichu,tongguokexuedeganyu,zheigejieduandehaizizaicihui、yuyan、shejiaoshangdouyouyidingdeleiji,jiazhangkeyikaishiranghaizixuexirenzi、xieziheshuxuefangmiandezhishi,danyidingyaozuncongpinggu、xingquhezizhudeyuanze,renzhijiaoyubushixueqiankangfujiaoyudezhongdian。

  10、xuexiaozenyangweimeiyigeguduzhengertongzhidinggexinghuadepeiyangmubiao?

  guduzhengertonggetichayijida,xuduoguduzhengertongkenenghuitongshibiaoxianweiduozhongzhangai,yeyoubufenertongmoufangmiandenenglisuiranchaochang,quenanyizaishehuiqingjingzhongfahuiheshiyingxingdiyunyong。yinci,zhidingpeiyangmubiaobixuzhuzhonggetishiyingxing、zhenduixingheyanxuxing。

  zaikaishikangfujiaoyuzhiqiandiyijianshiqingjiushijihaizizuoyigenenglidepinggu。muqianguoneijingchangyongdaodeyouguduzhengertongxinlijiaoyupinggu(jianchengpep-3,guoneiyingyongdebanbenjianchengcpep),youxiejigouyezaiyongguowaichangyongdejibenyuyanhexuexijinengpinggu(jianchengablls-r)huoyuyanxingweipinggukecheng(jianchengvb-mapp)。xuyaozhichudeshi,meiyouyitaokangfujiaoyujihuashishihesuoyouhaizide,suoyizaigebiehaizishenshangchuxianqijidekangfujiaoyujihuaweibishihemeiyigehaizi。mangmucaiyongqitahaiziyouxiaodefangfashibukexuede,yebunenggoushihaizidehuoyizuidahua。zaishishigexinghuadekangfujiaoyujihuadetongshi,suizhehaizinianlingdezengzhang,haiyaokaolvqizhiyeshengyafazhan,quedingshihedejiaoyumubiaohezhiyefazhanmubiao。

  11、zenyangshejihedailingguduzhengertongjinruhudongdehuanjie?

  guduzhengertongdehudongxingyishihenenglijunhenruo,jiaoshizaikangfujiaoyuguochengzhongyaozhongshiyuhaizihudong,juticelveyou: (1)jinxingzhuanyepinggu,lejiehaizidetedianyuxuqiu;(2)zhenzhengdejiena,jianlilianghaodeguanxi;(3)zhangwohaizizuiganxingqudeshiwu,yunyongqianghuacelve;(4)jianlijiegouhuajiaoxuehuanjing,zaixiaozukedeshejishangzhongshihaizijiandehudongxingwei;(5)zhongshiyanguangjiechu,yunyongyouxi、yinlehefuzhugoutonggongju。

  12、guduzhengertongkangfujiaoyujigouxupeibeinaxieshebei?

  guduzhengertongkangfujiaoyujigouxugenjuguduzhengertongxuqiuhezishenqingkuang,zhubupeizhikangfujiaoyubibeideshebei,yiquebaokangfujiaoyuxiaoguo。lirupeibeiyijingzhengshiyouxiaodegetihuapingguruanjianjiqicai【c-pephuopep3】、bufenhuochengtaoganzhileixunlianqicai、yidingshuliangdegongnengxingkangfuxunlianqicaihekangfusheshi;ciwai,haiyingyoudianshiji、dvdji、luyinji、shumaxiangji、shexiangji、diannao、touyingyideng;rukaishexiangguankecheng,haixupeiyouxiangyingdeshebei。

  13、guduzhengertongkangfujiaoyujigouxupeibeinaxiejiaoju、wanjuhetushu?

  guduzhengertongkangfujiaoyujigouxugenjujieshouhaizidenianlingduan,peibeifuhenianlingshengzhangfayutezhengdewanju、jiaojuhetushu。liruwei2—3suidehaizipeilabi、zhi、jimu、rouruandewanju,3—5juhuadexianyansecaitushu;zaidayixiedehaizikexuanzepeibeizhengtaogongjuwanju、yishengwanju、chufangwanjuhehuamiangengfuza、juzigengduodetushu。

  14、weishenmezaiguduzhengertongkangfujiaoyujigouzhongyidingyaosheyoubaojianyishenggang?

  guduzhengertongshouxianshiertong,tamenshenghuozaiyudajiatongyangdehuanjingzhong,tongyangkenengganmao、fashao、fuxie、huanshangchuanranxingjibingdeng。baojianyishengdezuoyongshiduihaizidejiankangjinxingkexuezhidaohejiance,jishifaxianhaizishenxinchuxianleshenmewenti,jizaofaxianhaizihuanbingzhengzhuang,biyaoshizhuanzhenjiuyi。guojiaguidingyoueryuandouyingsheyoubaojianyishenggang,guduzhengertongkangfujiaoyujigouyeyingzunzhaozhixing。

  15、guduzhengertongkangfujiaoyujigoutigongdexunlianneirong,haizidouxuyaocanjiama?

  guanyuguduzhengganyujishu,muqianguojishangtichudeyiyoushangbaizhong。duiciruhejiayixuanze?meiguoguojiaguduzhengzhongxin2009nianfabiaoleyifenmingwei“guojiaguifanhuabaogao”dewenjian。zheifenbaogaodemudeshixiangjiazhang、jiaoyujiayijiqitazhuanyerenyuantigongduiguduzhenghuanzheganyudeyouxiaoxinggenju。“guojiaguifanhuabaogao”degaikuoxingzongjieshi: yijingquerenyouxiaodeganyufangfazhongdesanfenzhiershiwanquanyiyingyongxingweifenxi(aba)zuoweiqililunjichuerfazhanchulaidefangfa,qiyuzeshixingweixinlixueyuxiangguanlilunzongheerpaishengdefangfa。shangshufangfamuqianzaiguoneiyoubufenyijingbeixitongyinjin,ruyingyongxingweifenxi、guanjianxingjinengxunlianfadeng。youyumeigehaizipinggujieguobutong,jigouyaochongfenkaolvqixuqiu,baokuofazhandexuqiu、zhuanyejishuzhichidexuqiu、huanjingdexuqiudeng,tigongshihedeyifenshishicaineirong,buyidingfeiyaoquanbucanjiakangfujiaoyujigouneitigongdexunlianxiangmu,zhiyouxuanzeshihedecaishizuihaode。

  16、kangfujiaoyurenyuanyingjubeinaxietiaojian?

  kangfujiaoyurenyuanyingjubeiyixiatiaojian:

  (1)jubeijiaogaodedaodexiuyangyuxinlisuzhi;

  (2)jubeituanduihezuoyishihelianghaodegoutongnengli;

  (3)jubeiyidingdezhuanyezhishiyujineng;

  (4)juyouweidadaozhuanyebiaozhunerbixudegongzuonianxian;

  (5)shentijiankang。

  17、ronghejiaoyuduiguduzhengertongkangfuyouheyiyi?

  ronghejiaoyukeyishiguduzhengertongyuputongxueshenggongtongxuexi、gongtongchengzhang,xuehuizuoren、qiuzhi、chuangzaodeng,shitamenjinhounenggouzirandirongrushehui,zili、pingdengdicanyushehuishenghuo。tongshi,xuexiaohaihuizhenduiguduzhengertongdeteshuxuqiuyouzhenduixingditigongteshujiaoyuheyifenshishicai,duitamenjinxingbiyaodekangfuhebuchangxunlian,nulishitamenheqitaxueshengyoupingdengdejihui,gongtongfazhan。

  18、ruherangxueshengjienaguduzhengtongxue?

  shouxian,yaorangsuoyouxueshengshulizhengquedecanjihecanjirendexiandaiwenmingguan,guduzhengtongxueshishehuidajiatingdeyiyuan,yingjiyulijie、zunzhong、guanxin、bangzhu。

  zaijiaoyu、jiaoxuehehuodongzhong,yingchongfenfahuibanjizhongqitaertongdefudaojimofanzuoyong,cujinxueshengduiguduzhengtongbandejiena。ru: xuanzexuexinenglixiangduijiaoqiangerqieyouyidingguanlinenglideertong,xiezhuguduzhengertongrongruketangxuexihehuodong;huozheshizaibanneishenzhiquanxiaofanweineituixinghuobanfudaohuodong,rangnenglijiaoqiangdeertongchongdangxiaolaoshi,zaixiaozuxuexi、xiuxidengshijiandailingguduzhengertongjinxinghuodong,fahuihuobanfudaodezuoyong,shiguduzhengertonggandaoyuqitaxueshengxiangchudekuaile、bugudan。

  19、duiguduzhengertongruhejinxingketangxingweiguanli?

  suibanjiududeguduzhengertonghuoduohuoshaodihuizaiketangshangbiaoxianchuyixieraoluanxingwei,rulizuo、zhuyilibujizhong、fapiqi、buanguidingfayan、xinliwentideng。laoshikeyicaiquyixiafangfajinxingketangxingweiguanli:

  (1)laoshikejiangguduzhengertongzuoweijinlianganpaizailimenyuan、liweishiyoushaoxuzhangaiwudeweizhi,zuihaonengkaojinlaoshizuo,bianyulaoshijishitixinghezuoxiangyingchuli。

  (2)zuoweizhouweihuanjingbuzhijiandanmingle。suiduxueshengfujindejiaoshiqiangmian、zhuomianjinliangshaofangyujiaoxuewuguandedongxi。

  (3)jiaoshiyaozixiguanchaguduzhengertongfapiqidezhuangkuangbingrenzhenfenxiqiyuanyin,youqishiyaofenxiqixuqiu,qianwanbuyaowujiewudao,yaoyongkuanrong、lijiedetaidu,yingzaohexie、pingwendebanjiqifen。shishenggongtongjienaguduzhengertong,bimianhuanjingyalizhishiguduzhengertongfapiqi。

  (4)jianligoutongmoshi,yindaoxueshenganxinhao(rudianming、yanshendengfangshi)tishifayan。keqianfudaoshijiaodaoguduzhengertongjushoufayan,yidanjushoufayan,lijijiyuzhengxingqianghua。

  (5)jiaqiangxinliyifenshishicai,gaishanguduzhengertongguzhi、ziwocijidengbushidangxingwei。shidangshishifazhanzheixiexueshengdekouyugoutongnenglihegerenyiyuanbiaodanengli,yijianqingqixinlifudan。

  20、ruhejiangwenhuaxuexi、xingweijiaozhengjieheqilai?

  xuexishi,shouxianyaowendinghaiziqingxu,zixiguancha、fenxi,qieshizhaochuqingxuxingweiwentifashengdeyuanyin,diaozhengchulifangfa(ruhelianpaihuanjing、shishidiaozhengneirong、gaibianyaoqiu、gaishanfangfa、gaishanchulitaidudeng);jiaoshiyaoweixiaozhemianduiertongjinxingjiaoxue,jishiyudaoertongdeqingxu、xingweiwenti,yeyaobaochilianghaodezhuangtai。dier,yaohelianpaijiaoxuehuanjing,rushiyongzhuanmendegebiexunlianshi、liyongduoyanghuadejiaocai、shanyuyonggezhongganguanciji,xiezhuhaizilijiebingzhangwozhishihejineng;disan,yaoyunyongjiandan、qingxihezhijiedezhiling,baokuokoutou、wenzishentiyuyanhuohuanjingtishi,tigaohaizidulixuexihehuodongdenengli;disi,yaozhuyijianshaohaizideziwocijixingwei,ruyaobaishouzhi、wannongshetou、zhuatoufa、daiwangtiankongdeng,mianduizheixiexingweiyaojijichuli,jiaqianggoutong,jiaohaizixuehuiziwokongzhixunlian。



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